ONTARIO - SCOTTISH CLEARANCE MIGRANTS
ONTARIO - SCOTTISH CLEARANCE MIGRANTS
Stuart Crichton has written:
"The Ontario was built in Quebec in 1851 for George Provost, a Liverpool merchant. It was a ship of 598 tons unladen (burthen 694 tons), had 2 decks + a poop.
Length was 125.7 feet, breadth 29.3 feet, depth in hold 20.7 feet. It was a barque sailing vessel, that is, three-masted, standing bowsprit, square rigged, carvel built, no galleries and with a woman's figurhead in the bows. The framework and planking were of wood and she was registered in Liverpool 1 July 1852.
The ship was registered to carry 273 immigrants, however, she sailed for NSW from Liverpool on 3 August 1852 with 309 Scottish immigrants from Skye and one other passenger (plus 300 tons of coal, 20 tons of salt, and other cargo). It was her maiden voyage. The Master's name was Jonathan Jackson. He died on the voyage, of typhus fever/typhoid, which also killed 36 passengers and 2 other crew by the time the ship reached Sydney. The fever struck one month out of Liverpool. 170 cases of it (more than half those on board!), were reported by the surgeon superintendent Thomas Barker M.D., when the ship arrived at Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) on 26th November 1852. The ship was kept in quarantine until 15th December, during which time a further 8 people died of the disease and were buried at North Head Quarantine Cemetery.
The ship's NSW arrival documents can be found on NSW Government Archives Authority Microfilm reel no. 2136.
The Ontario appears to have made several other voyages to Australia. Her career was short, however. She foundered 10 years later (1863) attempting to enter Port Phillip Bay (Melbourne).
The ship's passengers were mostly Clearances victims, some of whom were in dire need. Many, if not most, already had relatives who had preceded them to Australia in the 15 years since the first assisted passage ships left Scotland in 1837. The Ontario immigrants were brought to Australia under the Government-contracted successor to Rev John Dunmore Lang's original Bounty Scheme.
The Ontario voyage probably highlights that concerns that Lang began to express ten years earlier, had still not been fully addressed. Lang in 1841 railed against the consequences of what we would now call 'economic rationalism' caused by the privatisation of the immigration process. Under Lang's scheme in 1837-40, immigration agents who travelled to Scotland to fill the Bounty Scheme ships were directly in Government employ, with no vested interest. They were often clergymen and of good character. They chose prospective immigrants on the basis of need and also of how useful their skills would be to the Colony. The ships sailed from Scotland, from near where the destitute highlanders were, and were well-victualled, with strict health regimes, their own clergyman onboard and generally of high morale. When the scheme was privatised by the government, however, immigration agents had different agendas based on profit. They were less scrupulous in their choice of both ships and migrants. Their prime criteria were based on profit margins rather than on what was perceived as the best for NSW, Britain, or the migrants themselves. Instead of scouring the whole British Isles for the most needy and appropriate groups of people to emigrate, they set up shop in the large ports only (particularly London), and often didn't go far afield. That's why the Ontario passengers, unlike their relatives 15 years earlier (who left from Skye), had to travel from Skye with their families to Liverpool to embark. At least Liverpool was better than London, so some improvements had been made, but it still involved a risky voyage from Skye in small boats, along with all the extra hardships and expense this involved.
Lang also complained in 1841 that the profit-hungry agents put too many passengers on each ship, cut rations, bought inferior provisions, and took on cargo as well in order to make more profits. These practices contributed to the discomfort of the passengers, and fostered the rise of disease. It is noteworthy that the Ontario was carrying nearly 40 more people than she was registered for, and took on a cargo of coal, salt, etc. http://www.acay.com.au/~gsm/Ontario1852.html [This link is no longer active]
Other sources available:
A family history booklet about the arrival of some of the passengers on this and a couple of other immigrant ships from Scotland, called "Caithness to the Clarence," was written and published by the late Alan Angus Munro, in 1983. National Library of Australia book no ISBN 0 959 0641 0 9. It contains passenger lists and information on several other Bounty ships.
There is a passenger list that shows the families of Donald Frazer and Margaret Shaw who were to become some of my ancestors.
An interesting note is the family story about the family being classed as undesirables because they could only speak Gaelic and not English. This story was proven correct, when that statement was found in the official notes from the Health enquiry stating just that."
Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), Friday 16 July 1943, page 1
CLARENCE RIVER PIONEERS WHO CAME IN SAILING SHIP FROM HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND
(By Gordon Dennes.)
It was with feelings of deep sorrow that the relatives and many friends learned of the home call of Mrs. Susan Munro, who fell asleep after long and trying days of sickness at her home, "Kingsberough" (named after Kingsburgh on the eastern shore of Loch Enizort, Isle of Skye), Wharf street, Maclean, at 6.30 a.m. on Wednesday, May 12, 1943. She had attained the great age of three days off her 88th year, and was universally respected and loved by all with whom she became acquainted.
THE ISLE OF SKYE.
Mrs. Munro's both parents, her husband and their ancestors were natives of the Isle of Skye, or as it is named in the Gaelic language Eilan Sgianach — "The Winged Isle," owing to its coastline being greatly indented with lochs and bays. The glens and hillsides of the heathered highlands and islands of Scotland produced a virile and noble race. They were the graciously virtuous men and women, the simple and godly peasantry, who helped to mould the Christian character of our nation and made Presbyterian Scotland revered and admired throughout the world as producing, in proportion to her size, a spiritual and moral elevatting influence on the world which bears very favorable comparison with !hat of any nation.
In the year 1800, there resided on his small estate, which he owned in the parish of Sleat, in the south of the Isle of Skye, John MacDonald, his wife, three sons and two daughters. This John was Mrs. Munro's great-grand-father. He sold his farm during that year and sailed for the United States of America, where he acquired land in Alabama. One of his sons, named Archibald, remained in Keppock, near Broadford, Isle of Skye. He did not go with the other members of his family on account of his engagement to a lady named Susan Robertson. During or about the year 1802, Archibald MacDonald and Susan Robertson were married. Though they always entertained the idea of sailing to America, yet it was never fulfilled. So they lived their lives in their native Skye, where they reared a virile and cheerful family of four sons and six daughters, whose names were John (the elder), Janet, Donald, Kate, Margaret, Jessie, John (the younger), Mary, Flora and Allan. The custom of giving the same Christian name to two children in the same family was not uncommon in the Scottish Highlands. The last-named, son was the father of Mrs. Susan Munro. Archibald and Susan MacDonald were pious parents. Both of them contributed liberally to their church and other good causes. Also they were given much to hospitality. Archibald died when 70 years old, and his saintly wife at the age of 54 years. Their ashes lie in the Presbyterian cemetery, Kilmor, Skye. After the decease of their parents in Skye, the married son, John (the younger), 23 years old, native of Broadford, with his wife, Marion MacKinnon, 28 years, Broadford; his two maiden sisters, Mary, 28 years, Strathaird, and Fiora, 24 years, Strathaird, and his single brother Allan, a carpenter by trade, aged 22 years, of Broadford, sailed from Skye to Liverpool, England, on their long sea journey to join their eldest brother, John, and his family, at Redbank, Lower Manning River, N.S.W. Along with them at Liverpool were 304 other Highlanders, mostly from Skye. all of whom spoke the Gaelic language and only some of whom were acquinted with the English language. These 309 brave Highlanders were reared, spiritually on the Bible, Calvinism, and the sweet metrical Psalms of David, and physically on porridge.
THE SHIP ONTARIO.
They all embarked on the sailing ship Ontario, 697 tons, under the command of Captain Jackson, which carried a cargo of merchandise to Sydney. Thomas Barker, M.D., who graduated at Edinburgh University, was the surgeon-superintendent on board the Ontario. On August 3, 1852, this ship weighed anchor and set sail for "down under." About a month after leaving Liverpool a dreadful fever, described as "spotted typhoid fever" and "typhus fever," broke out among the passengers and crew. After a passage of 115 days the Ontario entered the waters of Port Jackson on November 26. 1852. Her remaining passengers and crew were examined medically by Haynes Gibbs Alleyne. M.D., health officer for the port. During the voyage about 170 cases of the fever occurred from which disease 36 passengers and three of the crew died, including Captain Jackson. When the Ontario was inspected medically by Doctor Alleyne, 18 passengers and 11 members of the crew were ill with the fever and two deaths from the same disease occurred that morning. Every member of the crew, except one boy, was attacked by this fever. The quarantined ship Ontario was released from Spring Cove Station on December 15, 1852. Six patients died from the malady and were buried at the quarantine station. North Head. Sydney. To all aboard, the trip was a very sad and dreary one, for the mortal remains of 47, or 14 per cent, of their number, were reverently and solemnly consigned to the "swelling deep" or interred at the Quarantine cemetery, North Head. Sydney. There were no births during the passage of the Ontario. After the passengers were released from quarantine a few of them remained in Sydney, where they obtained suitable employment, but the majority of them proceeded to the Maitland district, where many Scottish High-landers had already been located.
CLARENCE RIVER PIONEERS.
During the late fifties and sixties of last century, several of the "Ontario" families trekked or sailed north from the Hunter River. Some of these well known families and pioneers, who settled permanently on the Clarence River, were: Mrs. Anne (Roderick). MacAulay, daughter of Malcolm and Catherine Buchanan, who died at Goodwood Island, where she had resided since June 17, year 1866, on August 14,1927. aged 92 years. Buchanan, Lower Clarence-; Fraser, Chatsworth Island; Gillies, Coldstream, Warregah and Woodford Islands: MacAulay, North Arm, Warregah Island; MacDonald, Goodwood and Chatsworth Islands and the South Arm (one of whom; that fine old Christian lady, Mrs. Elizabeth (Malcolm) MacAulay, who passed to her eternal rest at Hurstville.on April 30, 1941, aged 90 years, was most probably the last survivor of that noble and in-trepid band of Ontarians ) ; Mac intosh, Ulmarra; Maclnnes, Wood ford Island and King's Creek; MacKinnon, Woodford Leigh and Broadwater, and Munro, Clarenza. Among the Ontarians who died on the Clarence River were: Mrs Ann MacAulay, aged 101 years, relict of Neil MacAulay (she died on February 15, 1906, at her daughter's residence, Chatsworth Island), Mrs. Mary MacFarlane. aged 91 years, who died at her residence, Warregah Island, on April 15, 1884; Mrs. Neil Mac-Queen, nee Margaret Ross, aged 77 years, who died at Martin's Pt. on January 8, 1929; and who had resided at Lawrence for some 35 years; Mrs, Euphemia.(James) MacSwan, whose maiden surname was MacSween, and who died at Woodford Island on February 27. 1931, at the ripe age of 91 years; Mrs. Flora Ross, who died at King's Creek, aged 83 years, during or about the year 1898 (she was the mother of the aforenamed Mrs. MacQueen); also Mr. Donald Shaw, aged. 50 years, .who died at King's Creek within a fortnight of Mrs. Flora Ross' death.
THE CAMERON AND MUNRO FAMILIES.
On leaving Skye, the Cameron family consisted of Norman, 45 years, who died on the voyage from. Liverpool; Christina, 48, is wife, a native of Strathaird; their four sons and four daughters, all of whom were born at Keppock Isle of Skye, Janet, 23, afterwards Mrs. John MacDermid, Mitchell's Island, Manning River; Donald, 20. who died during the passage of the Ontario; Margaret. 18, later Mrs. Allan MacDonald; Alexander, 16; Catherine, 12, who wedded Mr. Alexander MacDermid, Palmer's Island;. Ann, afterwards Mrs Colin MacDonald, Palmer's Channel; and the twins, Ronald. 6, and Finlay, 6. The last named died at Palmer's Island, prior to December, 1906. While the members of the Munro family were; Charles, 52 years old, the husband who was a son of Alexander and Effy Munro, both of whom were dead; Marion, 52, his wife, who was a daughter of John and Marion MacLeod, Snizort: their six daughters and three sons, all of whom were natives of Snizort. with the exception of Mary, who was born in the parish of Duirinish, Skye; Mary, 27 years; Janet, 24; Effy, 22; Donald. I8, who after-wards married the subject of this notice; Flora, 13; Hugh, 12. Christy, 12; Alexander, 7; and Marion, 3 years old. But what of the Ontarians, who toiled and pioneered when the Clarence Valley was being opened up to settlement? We owe them an eternal debt of gratitude. These brave sons and daughters of Scotland's Highlands landed there to work. On the land they faced hardships of day and night toil, together with many other difficulties incidental to pioneering. Along with others, they made the home and the district, and laid the basis of its future moral and commercial prosperity. Reared as they were on the Reformed faith, they proved that the strongest factors in creating happiness were the high ideals, the unswerving constancy and the unfaltering courage, which sprang from that religion. Imbued with the unspeakable belief in God's sovereignty and power, they toiled in faith, and their victory is written on both banks of and on the islands in the Clarence River. Their progeny should hold in lasting and grateful remembrance the memory of these worthy and faithful pioneers for the inheritance — both spiritual and material — that they have handed on to their descendants at no small cost and inconvenience to themselves.
(To be Continued).
Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), Saturday 31 July 1943, page 3
CLARENCE RIVER PIONEERS WHO CAME IN SAILING SHIP FROM HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND
(Continued from the issue of 16/7/43.)
(By Gordon Dennes.)
MR. ALLAN MacDONALD.
After debarkation at Sydney, Mr. Allan MacDonald proceeded to East Maitland, where he worked as a carpenter for a few months. Then he and a partner named Mr. Ferguson, drove a horse and dray all the way to a goldfield, where they spent a number of successful months. Prior to leaving for the diggings Allan had pledged his word in marriage to his fellow passenger, Miss Margaret Cameron, referred to previously. On his return they were married immediately in East Maitland. The wedding ceremony was performed by that celebrated Highland evangelist the Rev. Alexander Maclntyre, of Ahalton, who periodically visited the Clarence River. During one of these visits the Rev. Maclntyre preached at the opening ceremony of the present Free Presbyterian Church, Maclean. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Allan MacDonald travelled north and settled at Redbank, South Channel of the Lower Manning River, in the year 1854. This was near to his eldest brother, John, who had acquired land there some time prior to April, 1849. John and his family had previously resided at Miller's Forest opposite Raymond Terrace. During or about the same time as Mr. and Mrs. Allan MacDonald went to Redbank, Mrs. Christina Cameron and the members of her family settled on a farm at Taree estate, opposite Tinonee. At Redbank Allan MacDonald followed farming pursuits, and having served his time in the ship and yacht building trade in Greenock, previous to coming to New South Wales, he was able to supplement his earnings as a farmer by building, rowing and small sailing boats for the residents on the Manning River. Some interesting accounts have been related of the singular results secured by the owners of the MacDonald built boats in the early day regattas. During the year 1860, a wonderful revival of religion took place in the Free Presbyterian denomination on the Manning River, where the Rev. Allan MacIntyre, of deep piety and of ardent devotion to evangelical truth, labored assiduously from December 18, 1854, until his death on May 28, 1870 with the exception of the period January, 1863, to July, 1865, when he was stationed at Grafton.
The Revs. Alexander and Allan Maclntyre were unrelated, but the both of them hailed from the Scottish Highlands, the former from Rannachan, parish of Strontian, Argyllshire, and the latter from Kilmonvaig, Fort William, district, Inverness-shire. They were fearless preachers in both the English arid Gaelic languages, and neither would support any ministerial teaching other than that authorised by the Word of God. Their ministrations met with acceptance and success, and their faithful labors are referred to till this day. After the Disruption of the Church of Scotland on May 18, 1843, the centenary of which has just been celebrated, the Rev. Alexander Maclntyre was the first person to preach in the historic Floating iron Church at Strontian, in Loch Sunart, west coast of Scotland. It was during this revival that Mr. Allan MacDonald came under the influence and power of a higher spiritual life. In those days the Manning River was the main highway in the district, and the rowing boat the principal means conveyance. Oftentimes the MacDonald family attended the John Knox Free Presbyterian Church, Tinonee, which entailed rowing a boat some 25 miles for the return journey. Like many other Highlanders from Scotland, the MacDonalds established a church in their home, where the Gaelic Bible and metrical Psalms were used and sung daily. By the year 1854 the three MacDonald brothers, John the elder, John the younger and Allan were each settled on the Manning River, where they deeply interested themselves in the several movements connected with the thriving settlement and population of the district.
THE SAILING SHIP GLEANER.
These three MacDonald brothers either purchased or chartered one of the two sailing ships, both named the Gleaner, 42 tons, which were built at Pelican, Manning River, by Captains Alexander Newton and William Malcolm in the years 1848 and 1854, respectively, John, the elder, is said to have been one of the crew of the Gleaner under Captain Greenlees until he qualified to take command of her. She ran from the Manning River down to Sydney, laden with all manner of farm produce, chiefly maize, which was the staple pro-duct of that river. In the year 1862 and thereabouts there was a great influx of new settlers to the Clarence River. The Gleaner made several trips to this great highway, moving several families from the southern rivers, including the Manning.
ON PALMER'S ISLAND.
Mr. Archibald MacDermid, previously of Mitchell's Island, Manning River, selected on January 14, 1862, at Palmer's Island 97 acres and 64 acres of brush-land as conditional purchases, fronting Palmer's Channel, shown on the parish map of Taloumbi as adjoining portions numbered 69 and 70 respectively. These two blocks of land were measured by Surveyor P. R. Donaldson on November 9, 1861. In November, 1862, the Gleaner transported from Redbank and Taree estate, Manning River, Mr. Allan MacDonald, his wife Margaret, nee Cameron, their three children, Susan, named after her paternal grandmother, and who was born at Redbank on May 15, 1855 (the subject of this notice), Donald and Archibald, together with Mrs. Christina Cameron and her youngest son Finlay, mother and brother of Mrs. Allan MacDonald. The Gleaner succeeded in crossing the bars at the Manning and Clarence Rivers and cast her anchor well inside the lastnamed river. Mr. Allan MacDonald then lowered a boat and with all his care he made his way up to Palmer's Island, a distance of some nine miles, to the uncultivated block of 97 acres of land, covered to the water's edge with heavy brush, which had been selected some ten months previously by Mr. Archibald MacDermid. These two Highlanders had been friends on the Manning River. On this selection Mr. MacDonald took possession of a slab hut with a shingle roof on it. Soon after entering the hut, a cyclonic rainstorm raged and the MacDonalds and Camerons were unable to keep themselves or the household materials they had conveyed there, dry. The storm was so terrific that the father paced the floor all the anxious night with one of the boys (who was greatly terrified) in his arms. However, the following day brought cheer and gladness into the hearts of these brave pioneers. The storm having fulfilled its mission and the sun having asserted its November grandeur and brightness, and earlier settlers having heard of the arrival of the Gleaner, the MacDonalds and Camerons were soon sought out by acquaintances and other settlers, nearby. One pioneer named Mr. Ewen (the Gaelic for Hugh) Kennedy, who had settled with his family next to Mr. MacDermid's 64 acres of land, came with his bushman's axe. With this, he felled a huge gum tree early enough for Mrs. MacDonald to spread her white table cloth on it, where the first dinner was partaken of thankfully on Palmer's Island by the MacDonalds and Camerons. The huge stump of this tree was allowed to remain in the ground for some years, to mark the spot of their first midday meal, until it was found to be situated within the Government highway and removed. The following month, on December 13, the MacDonald parents were blessed with a son, whom they named Norman, in remembrance of his maternal grand-father, who, died during the voyage of the Ontario and was buried at sea. He was the first white boy, and Elizabeth MacLean (the late Mrs. Melsey Black) was the first white girl to be born on Palmer's island. Mr. Allan MacDonald, being a thorough, efficient worker and tradesman, very soon had sufficient land cleared and a substantial residence erected and occupied. Before long he turned the front room into a shop, where he sold varied goods of every day use to the settlers. Mr. MacDonald engaged labor for the clearing of the brush, planting of the maize with the hoe, and for his dealer's boat, which he probably built himself. Later, on March 28, 1873, Mr. Allan MacDonald purchased from Mr. Archibald MacDermid this farm of 97acres, where the MacDonalds spent their first year or so on Palmer's Island.
On August 31, 1863, at the Crown land sale held at Grafton, Mr. Allan MacDonald, then described as a boatbuilder, purchased two allotments of land, each containing two roods in the village of Maclean, or as it was then often called Rocky Mouth, owing to the reef of rocks situated in the waters at the mouth of the South Arm branch of the Clarence River near Maclean.
These two blocks of land were situated in section 7, allotment No. 1, at the corner of Short and Stanley streets, and section 6 allotment 4, fronting Wharf street. "Kingsborough," Mrs. Munro's late home, stands on portion of the latter allotment. These were two of several blocks which were measured by Surveyor W. A. B. Greaves on August 12, 1862, when he first laid out the village of Maclean. This name was derived from the Scottish Highland surname of the Surveyor-General for New South Wales during the period Novem-ber 1, 1861, to September 28, 1862, Mr. Alexander Grant McLean, who was a native of Scotland. He visited the Clarence River district in May, 1862, and gave instructions to Surveyor Greaves to design and lay out a village at Rocky Mouth. As the then village of Maclean was much more central for his customers, Mr. MacDonald transferred his stock of goods from Palmer's Island to a building situated between River street, Maclean, and the Clarence River. This was the second shop opened in that village. The dealing boats belonging to this store plied each week from Maclean to as far as Brushgrove and through the North and South Arms of the Clarence River. Mr. MacDonald entered vigorously into this storekeeping business, which he carried on successfully until he was laid aside by sickness in September, 1874, which brought about his death on February 18 1875, at the comparatively early age of 44 years. Both Mr. MacDonald and his wife were God-fearing parents. Family worship was maintained regularly in their home. Visitors and sojourners were invited to join with them in this worship. Their consistent Christian living commended their religion to others. When no Minister was available, Mr. MacDonald was sent for by friends to visit the sick and to impart spiritual instruction and consolation. In the presence of many relatives and friends the remains of Mr. Allan MacDonald were interred in the Maclean cemetery. The Rev. Duncan Maclnnes, who was inducted into the Free Presbyterian Church, Maclean, during the year 1868, and who had previously been acquainted with the deceased in Maitland, officiated at the graveside. Out of respect for his benevolent, faithful and pious life, the congregation of the Free Presbyterian Church, and friends erected at the head of Mr. MacDonald's grave, a tombstone setting forth thereon his virtues as, "a sincere and enlightened Christian and a faithful elder of the Free Presbyterian Church and an affectionate husband and father and friend."
MRS. MARGARET MacDONALD.
After having nursed her husband for five months continuously, Mrs. Margaret MacDonald herself fell ill. For some time it appeared as if she would not regain her health and strength, but in the kind providence of God her life was spared for over 48 years. During her long widowhood, she did not even have one occasion to consult a doctor for some 40 years. Six weeks before she passed away at "Kingsborough," the home of Mrs. Susan Munro, Maclean, on October 1, 1923, Mrs. Margaret MacDonald, in her 89th year of age, realised that her earthly pilgrimage was drawing near. The Gaelic Bible she had used in their home in those early Manning River days was her constant companion to the close of her life. Her ashes rest alongside those of her husband as indicated by the inscription on the monument. The Rev. T. M. MacClean, of the Free Presbyterian Church, Maclean, conducted the funeral service.
MR. AND MRS. DONALD MUNRO.
The late Mrs. Susan Munro was the eldest child born to Mr. and Mrs. Allan MacDonald at Redbank, Manning River, on May 15, 1855. She was most probably baptised by the Rev. Allan Maclntyre. Her late husband, Mr. Donald Munro, was baptised by the Rev. Roderick MacLeod, who was affectionately called by the Highlanders, "Maighstair Ruaridh," and whose long and faithful ministry in Scotland was blessed to not a few who emigrated to New, South Wales. Mr Donald Munro accompanied, both of his wife's parents before they were married on the same trip of the Ontario. Mr Donald Munro and Miss Susan MacDonald, of Palmer's Island were married at the residence of the bride's mother on May 25, 1882. The wedding ceremony was performed by the Rev. Duncan Mc-Innes. They then took up residence on their farm at Clarenza. Mr. Munro was one of the district's most highly respected, progressive and successful pioneers of the land. Like many other Highlanders he ever took a very active and intelligent interest in the historical church of his fore-fathers. After a residence of 77 years on the Clarence River at Grafton, Clarenza (from about the year 1856), and Maclean (1919), Mr. Donald Munro died at "Kingsborough," Wharf street, Maclean, on July 3, 1931, at the advanced age of 97 years. His remains were buried in the Maclean cemetery. The Rev. T. M. MacClean officiated at the funeral service.
A MOTHER IN ISRAEL.
The late Mrs. Susan Munro was courteous, kind and hospitable. She was well versed in current affairs and matters of general interest, but it was the Bible (including the metrical Psalms of David) and literature bearing on it and the Christian life, in which she most delighted. At Clarenza, Mrs. Munro took a keen interest in the spiritual welfare of the children of that locality for she established and conducted for some years a Sabbath School in her own home for their benefit. To Mrs. Munro church going was no cold formality, but a much prized means of grace, by which she learned fully the Will and Word of God. When she was no longer able, through physical frailty of the body, to attend church she faithfully and lovingly welcomed her pastor with the scriptural message which trans-mitted light and comfort to her heart.
Mrs. Munro's love for the Bible and reverence for the Sabbath Day, her conscientious attendance upon the "means" (public ordinances), her devotion and loyalty to the Free Presbyterian, Church and her minister, bear traits of character which have marked her out as of stock some-what far removed from what one usually comes across. In her trying illness, in which she was tenderly nursed by her devoted sister, Miss Jessie MacDonald, she manifested much patience often times concealing the pain and weariness she must have experienced, and keeping the bright side to the world. Mrs. Munro was of strong intellectual powers, and she had a mind well-stored with Gospel truths. With her passing another human link between two vastly different periods in the history of Clarence River settlement has been broken. The early pioneering days of clearing the brush and bush lands, of planting crops with the hoe, and of pitsawing timber, when this and all other work and transport were done with the aid of the slowly moving bullocks, horses, pulling and sailing boats, contrasts with the present day speedy transport on land, on water and in the air and the assistance rendered by electricity, machinery, etc. After services in the Free Presbyterian Church, Maclean. and at the graveside, which were conducted by the Rev. D. G. C. Trotter. M.A., on May 13, 1943, the mortal remains of Mrs. Susan Munro, were interred in the family plot. Presbyterian sec-lion, Maclean cemetery. Here, where "the rude fore-fathers of the hamlet sleep," quite a number of the tombstones have been erected in memory of natives of the Scottish Highlands. Mrs. Munro will be greatly missed by her many relations and friends in New South Wales and New Zealand. To her sons and daughter, brothers, and sisters and relatives we tender our sincere sympathy in their bereavement. Mrs. Munro's four sons and daughter were: Allan, who was a popular captain of the river steamer Woolwich for eight years, and who was killed in action in France on April 25, 1918; Charles, Clarenza; Mrs. H. B. Atkinson (Marion, a Munro family name for at least the three previous generations), 36 Bennett street, Bondi; Donald Alexander, 25 Llewellyn street, Rhodes and Angus 110 Windsor street, Paddington. Her four brothers and three sisters were: Christina, who died during August, 1857, at Redbank, Manning River, aged six months; Donald; who died at 61 Queen street, Grafton, on April 15, 1937, aged 78 years; Archibald, who died in Queensland during the year 1893 at the age of 33 years; Norman, retired builder and contractor, Napier, New Zealand; Miss Jessie MacDonald, "Kingsborough," Wharf street, Maclean; Alexander Allan, who died at Mrs. Munro's residence, Clarenza, on July 6, 1908, aged 37 years arid 10 months; Mrs. James (Margaret) Gray, "Grayholme," Palmer's Island, and John, retired builder and contractor, Hastings New Zealand, who was in partnership with his brother, Norman.
As one by one they pass away,
The grand old pioneers; Some glory of a former day, With each one disappears.