Mid North Coast Pioneers - Newcastle to Lismore and beyond

Catherine Emily BREWERAge: 74 years18681942

Name
Catherine Emily BREWER
Given names
Catherine Emily
Surname
BREWER
Married name
Catherine Emily McKINNON
Birth about 1868 36 26
Citation details: 10868/1868 BREWER CATHERINE E HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Birth of a sisterBetsy Hawke “Bessie” BREWER
December 6, 1869 (Age 23 months)
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 34
Citation details: 12644/1869 BREWER BETSY H HENRY FRANCES MANNING RIVER
Birth of a sisterMatilda BREWER
about 1871 (Age 3 years)
Citation details: 12065/1871 BREWER MATILDA HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Birth of a brotherSilas Henry BREWER
about 1873 (Age 5 years)
Citation details: 13365/1873 BREWER SILAS HENRY HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Birth of a brotherErnest William BREWER
about 1876 (Age 8 years)
Citation details: 14463/1876 BREWER ERNEST WILLIAM HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Birth of a sisterMary Emma BREWER
May 30, 1878 (Age 10 years)
Citation details: 15943/1878 BREWER UNNAMED HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Death of a sisterMary Emma BREWER
June 4, 1878 (Age 10 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 7118/1878 BREWER FEMALE HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Birth of a sisterEvelyn BREWER
May 22, 1879 (Age 11 years)
Twin Brother: Edgar BREWERtwin brother
Citation details: 16952/1879 BREWER EVELYN HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Birth of a brotherEdgar BREWER
May 22, 1879 (Age 11 years)
Twin Sister: Evelyn BREWERtwin sister
Citation details: 16953/1879 BREWER UNNAMED HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Death of a sisterEvelyn BREWER
May 28, 1879 (Age 11 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 6706/1879 BREWER EVELYN HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Death of a brotherEdgar BREWER
May 28, 1879 (Age 11 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 6705/1879 BREWER INFANT HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar
Brewer - Henry, Mary Emma, Evelyn and Edgar

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Birth of a sisterMilcah Cordelia BREWER
about 1880 (Age 12 years)
Citation details: 17940/1880 BREWER MILCAH CORDELIA HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Death of a maternal grandfatherPeter Henry HAWKE
August 16, 1880 (Age 12 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 7966/1880 HAWKE PETER PETER SUSANNAH MANNING RIVER
Hawke - Peter and Mary
Hawke - Peter and Mary

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Birth of a sisterClara Grace BREWER
about 1882 (Age 14 years)
Citation details: 18390/1882 BREWER CLARA G HENRY FANNY WINGHAM
Birth of a brotherHarrie Victor BREWER
about 1884 (Age 16 years)
Citation details: 21600/1884 BREWER HARRIE V HENRY FANNY WINGHAM
Marriage of a siblingWilliam LYNDONAnn Jane BREWERView this family
August 26, 1884 (Age 16 years)
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 168 and 272
Citation details: 5204/1884 LYNDON WILLIAM BREWER ANN J WINGHAM
Death of a fatherHenry BREWER
December 15, 1885 (Age 17 years)
Citation details: BREWER HENRY 10293/1886 JOHN ANN TAREE
Quality of data: primary evidence
Brewer - Henry
Brewer - Henry

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Marriage of a siblingJames LYNDONBetsy Hawke “Bessie” BREWERView this family
August 17, 1887 (Age 19 years)
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 34 and 168
MarriageMalcolm McKINNONView this family
September 12, 1887 (Age 19 years)
Citation details: 5216/1887 MCKINNON MALCOLM BREWER CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: primary evidence
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 438 and 530
Birth of a daughter
#1
Catherine Anne McKINNON
January 11, 1888 (Age 20 years)
Citation details: 24156/1888 MCKINNON CATHERINE MALCOLM CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Marriage of a siblingGeorge Edwin BREWERIsabella BRYANTView this family
April 10, 1888 (Age 20 years)
Citation details: 5327/1888 BREWER EDWIN G BRYANT ISABELLA TAREE
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 363
Birth of a son
#2
Norman McKINNON
April 18, 1889 (Age 21 years)
Citation details: 23037/1889 MCKINNON NORMAN MALCOLM CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Death of a brotherErnest William BREWER
December 3, 1889 (Age 21 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 10302/1889 BREWER ERNEST W HENRY FANNY TAREE
Brewer - Ernest william
Brewer - Ernest william

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Death of a maternal grandmotherMary Grace BAKER
September 2, 1890 (Age 22 years)
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 12508/1890 HAWKE MARY SAMUEL GRACE TAREE
Hawke - Peter and Mary
Hawke - Peter and Mary

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Birth of a son
#3
Donald Henry McKINNON
October 26, 1890 (Age 22 years)
Citation details: 33864/1890 MCKINNON DONALD H MALCOLM CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a son
#4
Malcolm McKINNON
September 11, 1892 (Age 24 years)
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Citation details: 34772/1892 MCKINNON MALCOLM MALCOLM CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a son
#5
Hugh McKINNON
April 28, 1894 (Age 26 years)
Citation details: 32353/1894 MCKINNON HUGH MALCOLM CATHERINE E STROUD
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a son
#6
Charles Cameron McKINNON
March 14, 1896 (Age 28 years)
Citation details: 16673/1896 MCKINNON CHARLES C MALCOLM CATHERINE E STROUD
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Citation details: Failford General
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a son
#7
Kenneth Clyde McKINNON
January 28, 1898 (Age 30 years)
Citation details: 7447/1898 MCKINNON KENNETH C MALCOLM CATHERINE E STROUD
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a daughter
#8
Clara Elsie McKINNON
January 19, 1900 (Age 32 years)
Citation details: 2732/1900 MCKINNON CLARA E MALCOLM CATHERINE E COPELAND
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Marriage of a siblingSilas Henry BREWERHenrietta “Etta” MOOREView this family
November 18, 1902 (Age 34 years)
Citation details: 10441/1902  BREWER SILAS H MOORE HENRIETTA WINGHAM
Quality of data: primary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc; Taree, NSW;2004
Citation details: 1155
Birth of a daughter
#9
Emily McKINNON
June 28, 1903 (Age 35 years)
Citation details: 20526/1903 MCKINNON EMILY MALCOLM CATHERINE E COPELAND
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a son
#10
Alexander Neil “Nutson” McKINNON
March 8, 1907 (Age 39 years)
Address: 'Glen Ora'
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Marriage of a siblingHarrie Victor BREWEREsther “Ettie” DAWSONView this family
about 1908 (Age 40 years)
Citation details: 2844/1908 BREWER HARRIE V DAWSON ESTHER TAREE
Death of a husbandMalcolm McKINNON
May 20, 1908 (Age 40 years)
Cause: Pneumonia.
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Citation details: Page 8
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Citation details: 7372/1908 MCKINNON MALCOLM DONALD ANN STROUD
Quality of data: primary evidence
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 438
Publication: The Wingham Chronicle, previously published as The Wingham Chronicle and Manning River Observer, is a daily newspaper originally published in Wingham, New South Wales, Australia, now in Pyrmont, New South Wales by Fairfax Media.[1]
Citation details: Saturday 23 May 1908, page 6
McKinnon - Malcolm - Obituary
McKinnon - Malcolm - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Note: The headstone for Malcolm is inscribed with the day of his death as the 18th.
Burial of a husbandMalcolm McKINNON
May 21, 1908 (Age 40 years)
Publication: The Wingham Chronicle, previously published as The Wingham Chronicle and Manning River Observer, is a daily newspaper originally published in Wingham, New South Wales, Australia, now in Pyrmont, New South Wales by Fairfax Media.[1]
Citation details: Saturday 23 May 1908, page 6
McKinnon - Malcolm - Obituary
McKinnon - Malcolm - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

McKinnon - Malcolm and Catherine Emily
McKinnon - Malcolm and Catherine Emily

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Marriage of a siblingDavid Gemmel GIBSONClara Grace BREWERView this family
June 16, 1909 (Age 41 years)
Citation details: 6069/1909 GIBSON DAVID G BREWER CLARA G STROUD
Marriage of a childGuildford Collins Reay PATERSONCatherine Anne McKINNONView this family
about 1914 (Age 46 years)
Citation details: 8939/1914 PATERSON GUILDFORD C R MCKINNON CATHERINE A STROUD
Birth of a granddaughter
#1
Elizabeth Fife “Bessie” PATERSON
1916 (Age 48 years)
Citation details: PATERSON ELIZABETH F 38951/1916 GUILDFORD C CATHERINE A STROUD
Death of a brotherGeorge Edwin BREWER
October 7, 1916 (Age 48 years)
Citation details: 19727/1916 BREWER EDWIN G HENRY FANNY WINGHAM
Brewer - Edwin George
Brewer - Edwin George

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Death of a motherFanny HAWKE
January 30, 1918 (Age 50 years)
Citation details: 3689/1918 BREWER FANNY PETER MARY WINGHAM
Quality of data: primary evidence
Brewer - Fanny
Brewer - Fanny

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Note: The headstone for Fanny is inscribed with her day of death being the 20th.
Birth of a grandson
#2
Frazer John McKINNON
1921 (Age 53 years)
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Marriage of a childMalcolm McKINNONElsie BLOWSView this family
January 11, 1921 (Age 53 years)
Citation details: 228/1921 MCKINNON MALCOLM BLOWS ELSIE SYDNEY
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Marriage of a childHugh McKINNONMyra Elizabeth McMURRAYView this family
February 12, 1921 (Age 53 years)
Citation details: 4456/1921 MCKINNON HUGH MCMURRAY ELIZABETH M MORPETH
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Birth of a grandson
#3
Ronald Gordon McKINNON
1923 (Age 55 years)
Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Marriage of a childCharles Cameron McKINNONFlorence Dorothy Maud “Dorrie” DAVISView this family
October 24, 1923 (Age 55 years)
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Citation details: 16221/1923 MCKINNON CHARLES C. DAVIS FLORENCE D M GOSFORD
Birth of a grandson
#4
Donald McKINNON
1927 (Age 59 years)

Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Death of a grandsonDonald McKINNON
1929 (Age 61 years)

Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Marriage of a siblingHarrie Victor BREWERAnnie Jackson BASHAMView this family
about 1931 (Age 63 years)
Citation details: 3442/1931 BREWER HARRIE V BASHAM ANNIE J TAREE
Birth of a granddaughter
#5
Jean Elizabeth McKINNON
1932 (Age 64 years)

Publication: Leslie M. McKinnon, Probably in the early 1980's.
Marriage of a childKenneth Clyde McKINNONGladys Beryl HOLMESView this family
September 28, 1932 (Age 64 years)

Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Death of a sisterBetsy Hawke “Bessie” BREWER
January 23, 1935 (Age 67 years)
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 34
Publication: New South Wales Government
Citation details: 4180/1935 LYNDON BETSY H HENRY FANNY TAREE
Lyndon - Bessie and James
Lyndon - Bessie and James

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Marriage of a grandchildNorman Keith COWANElizabeth Fife “Bessie” PATERSONView this family
about 1937 (Age 69 years)
Citation details: 4510/1937 COWAN KEITH NORMAN PATERSON ELIZABETH FYFE TAREE
Marriage of a childAlexander Neil “Nutson” McKINNONElfreda Jean DAVISView this family
November 15, 1941 (Age 73 years)
Citation details: 28158/1941 MCKINNON ALEXANDER NEIL DAVIS ELFRED JEAN NORTH SYDNEY
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 540
Community Activities
Active with Red Cross and the Free Presbyterian Church

Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Death May 17, 1942 (Age 74 years)
Address: At her home
Citation details: 13564/1942 MCKINNON CATHERINE EMILY HENRY FANNY TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Burial May 19, 1942 (2 days after death)
Publication: Newspaper; Taree NSW; 1913 - 1954
Citation details: Wednesday 20 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

McKinnon - Malcolm and Catherine Emily
McKinnon - Malcolm and Catherine Emily

Note: Image kindly made available by the volunteers at Australian Cemeteries Index.

Obituary May 29, 1942 (12 days after death)
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Publication: Newspaper; Taree NSW; 1913 - 1954
Citation details: Wednesday 20 May 1942, page 2.
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

Family with parents - View this family
father
mother
Marriage: about 1863Maitland, New South Wales, Australia
2 years
elder brother
2 years
elder sister
3 years
herself
23 months
younger sister
2 years
younger sister
Matilda BREWER
Birth: about 1871 39 29Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death:
3 years
younger brother
4 years
younger brother
Ernest William BREWER
Birth: about 1876 44 34Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death: December 3, 1889Taree, New South Wales, Australia
2 years
younger sister
Mary Emma BREWER
Birth: May 30, 1878 46 36Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death: June 4, 1878Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
1 year
younger sister
Evelyn BREWER
Birth: May 22, 1879 47 37Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death: May 28, 1879Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
younger brother
Edgar BREWER
Birth: May 22, 1879 47 37Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death: May 28, 1879Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
19 months
younger sister
Milcah Cordelia BREWER
Birth: about 1880 48 38Manning River District (Taree), New South Wales, Australia
Death:
3 years
younger sister
Clara Grace BREWER
Birth: about 1882 50 40Wingham, New South Wales, Australia
Death: about 1966Balmain, New South Wales, Australia
3 years
younger brother
Family with Malcolm McKINNON - View this family
husband
herself
Marriage: September 12, 1887Taree, New South Wales, Australia
4 months
daughter
15 months
son
18 months
son
23 months
son
20 months
son
23 months
son
23 months
son
Kenneth Clyde McKINNON
Birth: January 28, 1898 44 30Nabiac, New South Wales, Australia
Death: April 4, 1977Warwick, Queensland, Australia
2 years
daughter
Clara Elsie McKINNON
Birth: January 19, 1900 46 32Nabiac, New South Wales, Australia
Death: March 2, 1984Bateau Bay, New South Wales, Australia
3 years
daughter
4 years
son

BirthB - Births Registered in New South Wales
Citation details: 10868/1868 BREWER CATHERINE E HENRY FANNY MANNING RIVER
Quality of data: secondary evidence
BirthLetter to Uncle Mac re Donald McKinnon
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
BirthNewspaper - The Gloucester Advocate
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

MarriageM - Marriages Registered in New South Wales
Citation details: 5216/1887 MCKINNON MALCOLM BREWER CATHERINE E TAREE
Quality of data: primary evidence
MarriageLetter to Uncle Mac re Donald McKinnon
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
MarriagePre 1860 Pioneer Register - Book 1
Publication: Manning Wallamba Family History Society Inc, Taree NSW, 2001
Citation details: 438 and 530
Community ActivitiesNewspaper - The Gloucester Advocate
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

DeathM - Deaths Registered in New South Wales
Citation details: 13564/1942 MCKINNON CATHERINE EMILY HENRY FANNY TAREE
Quality of data: secondary evidence
DeathLetter to Uncle Mac re Donald McKinnon
Publication: Personal letter written by Leslie M. McKinnon to Uncle Mac from 62 Hume Road, Cronulla, NSW 2230, dated 23 July, 1973
DeathHeadstone - McKinnon - Malcolm and Catherine Emily
DeathNewspaper - The Gloucester Advocate
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

BurialWeb Site - Australian Cemeteries Index
BurialNewspaper - The Northern Champion
Publication: Newspaper; Taree NSW; 1913 - 1954
Citation details: Wednesday 20 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary (2)

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

ObituaryNewspaper - The Gloucester Advocate
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.

NoteNewspaper - The Gloucester Advocate
Publication: Newspaper; NSW; 1905 - 1954
Citation details: Friday 29 May 1942, page 2
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary
McKinnon - Catherine Emily - Obituary

Note: Downloaded from Trove.